Produced by Telematics Update

Industry Overview

Safety has always been at the top of the agenda in the mind of automakers, and recently it has been propelled to new heights with the development of safety specific functions. There are already vehicles on the road with L1 and L2 capabilities – with L3 being the next step for the automakers. It's the perfect time to conduct in-depth research, to ensure strategies are in line with industry trends and developments.

This report takes a step by step approach, taking the reader through all aspects that require consideration when devising safety solutions. These range from driver distraction, through to ADAS and autonomous features.

The report draws on in-depth interviews with more than 30 industry specialists, and an exclusive Telematics Update survey of international market sentiments drawing on the answers of 352 executives. Telematics Update then turned these insights into an impartial assessment of the market.

Key Takeaways

  • Driver distraction:Understand what driver distraction is and what its many causes and effects are. Get a solid overview of the most important driver distraction studies to date. Rethink your views on the safety of voice-based interfaces and the relative dangers of cognitive driver distraction

  • Guidelines and regulations: Get to know the most important regulatory bodies and professional organizations in the area of driver distraction and HMI design. Learn about their latest regulatory efforts and understand how to keep up with their ever-evolving and, at times, conflicting demands

  • Consumer electronics and mobile trends: Consider the many consumer electronics trends pushing their way into modern cars and the various HMI design/driver distraction challenges they engender

  • Interfaces and interactions: Learn about the latest advances in interface technologies – from natural voice processing and large touchscreens to gesture controls and augmented reality – and what advantages they offer modern HMIs for safe and exciting use

  • Strategies for mitigating driver distraction through HMI design: Understand how to combine various interfaces and interactions into overall strategies for managing driver distraction. Review product simplification and personalization plus multimodal interfaces and context-aware HMIs

  • Driver distraction and automated driving: Realize that until self-driving cars are commercially available, distraction will continue to be a significant concern. Understand the situations where a driver's attention will still be required, from ADAS warnings to retaking control of the vehicle

Companies Who Contributed

boschContinentalFiatFord
GMHarmanMercedes-BenzMTS
QNXUIEvolutionuniversity-of-nottinghamVisteon

Previous Buyers 

Companies that have bought previous editions of this report include:

  • Daimler
  • Homda
  • Hyundai Mobis
  • Toyota Motor Europe
  • LG Electronics
  • Fujitsu Ten


Table Of Contents

Welcome...3

Industry reviews... 4

Thought leadership...5

About Telematics Update...6

Thought Leadership...6

Acknowledgments...7

List of figures... . 10

List of tables...12

Introduction.... 13

Executive summary...15

Chapter 1: Understanding driver distraction...19

  • 1.1 What is driver distraction?.... 20
    • 1.1.1 Driver inattention vs. driver distraction...21
  • 1.2 Sources of driver distraction...22
  • 1.3 Building a picture of driver distraction...22
    • 1.3.1 Experimental studies of driving performance...23
    • 1.3.2 Naturalistic driving studies...24
    • 1.3.3 Crash-based studies...26
    • 1.3.4 Observation-based studies...27
  • 1.4 Rethinking primary vs. secondary tasks...28
    • 1.4.1 Cognitive distraction vs. visual-manual distraction: Which is more dangerous?...29
    • 1.4.2 Voice control is not the panacea...31
    • 1.4.3 People and technology influence distracted driving...34
  • 1.5 Resources for driver distraction research...35

Chapter 2: Guidelines and regulation...36

  • 2.1 Organizations and regulators...36
    • 2.1.1 European Commission...36
    • 2.1.2 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)...38
    • 2.1.3 Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (AAM)...39
    • 2.1.4 International Organization for Standardization (ISO)...40
    • 2.1.5 Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)...41
    • 2.1.6 Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA)...42
    • 2.1.7 International Telecommunication Union (ITU)...43
    • 2.1.8 EU-US-Japan cooperation in ITS...44
  • 2.2 Milestones in driver distraction regulation and guidance (past and future)...44
  • 2.3 Regulatory developments for future interfaces and technology ...44

Chapter 3: Consumer electronics and mobile trends...46

  • 3.1 Content and connected services: Strength in numbers?...48
  • 3.2 The Internet of Things...49
  • 3.3 Wearable technology...50
    • 3.3.1 Digital healthcare...52
  • 3.4 Cameras everywhere with object recognition...53

Chapter 4: Interfaces and interaction...55

  • 4.1 Sound, voice and speech...56
    • 4.1.1 Voice control.... 56
    • 4.1.2 Sound perception...57
  • 4.2 Augmented reality in Head-Up Displays...59
  • 4.3 Large touchscreens...63
  • 4.4 Gestural interaction...68
  • 4.5 Touch interaction with haptic feedback...69

Chapter 5: Strategies for mitigating driver distraction anddesigning winning HMI in the vehicles of tomorrow...70

  • 5.1 HMI design strategies...70
    • 5.1.1 Simplification...70
    • 5.1.2 Personalization...72
    • 5.1.2.1 Integration of mobile devices...73
    • 5.1.2.1.1 Apple...74
    • 5.1.2.1.2 Google...75
    • 5.1.2.1.3 MirrorLink...76
    • 5.1.2.2 Summary...76
    • 5.1.3 Multimodal interaction...77
    • 5.1.4 Prioritize information in the driver's line of sight...81
    • 5.1.5 Context aware and adaptive HMI...82
    • 5.1.5.1 Mental workload...85
    • 5.1.5.2 Driver monitoring...85
    • 5.1.6 Quality of design implementation...87
    • 5.1.6.1 Font design...88
  • 5.2 Process improvements...89
    • 5.2.1 Don't wait for official distraction guidelines and regulations before acting ...89
    • 5.2.2 Improve collaborative partnerships...91

Chapter 6: ADAS and the future of automated driving...94

  • 6.1 Automated technology roadmap...94
    • 6.1.1 Legislation...96
  • 6.2 Situation awareness and taking back control...96
  • 6.3 The challenge of making ADAS warnings noticed...97

Industry learnings...100

List of acronyms...104

 

List of figures

  • Figure 1: Percentage of drivers involved in fatal crashes for different age groups in 2012...19
  • Figure 2: Broad views on driver distraction vs. driver inattention (mean values)...20
  • Figure 3: Graphical representation of driver inattention showing driver distraction as a specific type of inattention...21
  • Figure 4: Methods of assessing driving performance and driver demand...23
  • Figure 5: Cell phone distraction goes underreported in crash-based studies...27
  • Figure 6: Activities are placed on the continuum based on how essential they are to the driving task and overall workload...29
  • Figure 7: Driver distraction and risk to safety...30
  • Figure 8: Understanding driver distraction for the purpose of HMI design...31
  • Figure 9: Tasks listed in ascending order for the amount of off-road glance time that occurred during the completion of each task...33
  • Figure 10: Milestones in driver distraction regulation and guidance (past and future)...41
  • Figure 11: Consumer purchase priorities...47
  • Figure 12: Consumer interest in ADAS compared with connected services...47
  • Figure 13: Forecast of connectivity penetration in Western Europe...49
  • Figure 14: The IoT will connect all kinds of infrastructure, devices and Cloud services...49
  • Figure 15: Samsung Gear Fit...51
  • Figure 16: Google Glass...51
  • Figure 17: Nissan Nismo watch...52
  • Figure 18: Smart contact lens prototype for detecting glucose levels in tears...53
  • Figure 19: Importance of different functions for managing driver distraction...55
  • Figure 20: Customer satisfaction with speech recognition...56
  • Figure 21: A spatial auditory display aiding the driver by warning him of another vehicle approaching a blind intersection...58
  • Figure 22: Head-up display showing typical navigation and speed information...59
  • Figure 23: Theodolite AR app superimposes real time information about position, altitude, bearing, range, and inclination on the iPhone's live camera image...60
  • Figure 24: Honda's projected path AR concept...60
  • Figure 25: Continental's augmented reality HUD concept displays ADAS and navigation information...61
  • Figure 26: Land Rover's augmented reality Transparent Bonnet concept infographic...62
  • Figure 27: Land Rover's augmented reality Transparent Bonnet concept...63
  • Figure 28: Customer satisfaction with touch screens...64
  • Figure 29: BMW research investigating new interaction concepts on large screens.
    Left: Enlarge interactive areas. Middle: Offer haptic guidance points. Right: Allow for position-independent touch gestures...65
  • Figure 30: The display can be split into two, or a single function like navigation can be shown full screen...66
  • Figure 31: Adjusting settings with small target areas can be awkward, although the on/off toggle buttons are easy to swipe...66
  • Figure 32: Long lists like media libraries or contacts are easier to scroll on such a tall screen...67
  • Figure 33: Adjusting some common climate controls like fan speed and direction required you to enter a sub menu 67
  • Figure 34: Touchpad in new Mercedes C-Class, with multi-touch capability and haptic feedback...68
  • Figure 35: Importance of specified HMI design objectives...70
  • Figure 36: Opel Intellilink infotainment system showing favourite contacts, radio stations, playlists and nav locations pinned to bottom row of touch screen...72
  • Figure 37: Top five smartphone operating systems by worldwide shipments...73
  • Figure 38: Apple CarPlay in 2015MY Volvo XC90...75
  • Figure 39: Home screen of ‘Windows in the Car' smartphone mirroring concept...76
  • Figure 40: Visteon's multimodal Horizon Cockpit concept with gesture, voice and touch interaction...78
  • Figure 41: Controlling volume with 3D gesture control in Visteon's Horizon Cockpit...80
  • Figure 42: Mitsubishi multimodal navigation interface for Chinese-language character input...81
  • Figure 43: Interior of 2015MY Audi TT has fully reconfigurable instrument cluster and no center display....82
  • Figure 44: Aviate intelligent homescreen for Android, and EasilyDo personal assistant for iOS/Android... ...83
  • Figure 45: Mitsubishi Ultra-easy HMI prototype...84
  • Figure 46: Interior driver monitoring cameras can observe the position of the driver's head and the viewing angle...86
  • Figure 47: Audi TT virtual instrument cluster (2015MY) features a 3D model of the car with a confusing radial menu of icons...87
  • Figure 48: Square grotesque Eurostile font vs. humanist Frutiger font highlighting characteristics thought to improve legibility....88
  • Figure 49: Importance of HMI and driver distraction guidelines...90
  • Figure 50: Likely policies that companies will follow to minimize driver distraction...91
  • Figure 51: SAE J3106 Levels of driving automation...95
  • Figure 52: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) data showing percentage of owners who drive with lane departure warning turned on...98
  • Figure 53: IIHS data showing percent change in vehicle damage claims per insured vehicle year for vehicle 5collisions...98
  • Figure 54: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by primary business of respondent...100
  • Figure 55: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by job function of respondent...101
  • Figure 56: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by main target market...102
  • Figure 57: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by geographic region... 103

 

List of tables

  • Table 1: Drivers involved in fatal crashes by age in 2012...20
  • Table 2: Broad views on driver distraction vs. driver inattention...21
  • Table 3: Driver distraction and risk to safety...31
  • Table 4: Understanding driver distraction for the purpose of HMI design...32
  • Table 5: Research groups and organizations...35
  • Table 6: ISO standards produced by ISO/TC 22 Road vehicles /SC 13WG 8...40
  • Table 7: ISO standards produced by ISO/TC 204 Intelligent transport systems...40
  • Table 8: SAE-issued standards overseen by the Safety and Human Factors Standards Steering Committee...41
  • Table 9: SAE work-in-progress standards overseen by the Safety and Human Factors Standards Steering Committee...42
  • Table 10: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by primary business of respondent...101
  • Table 11: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by job function of respondent...102
  • Table 12: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by main target market...102
  • Table 13: Breakdown of TU's April 2014 survey by geographic region...103

The Ultimate Connected-Car Knowledge Package

As well as B2B reports, Telematics Update organises world-renowned conferences. At Telematics Munich 2014 800+ senior-level automotive telematics execs will meet to discuss the latest connected-car strategies for the European market.

Telematics Update has put together a diamond pass that incorporates a full conference ticket and the Driver Distraction & HMI Design Report 2014. This is the best value pass as it includes:

  • Full 2-day conference pass with access to all presentations and penal debates to help your business overcome the latest connected-car challenges in Europe
  • Access to full conference audio recordings with panels and presentations so you can review the important discussions back at the office
  • Full Advanced Auto Safety Report 2014 - Driver Distraction, ADAS & HMI
  • Access to networking lunch, coffee breaks and drinks party so you can meet those actively doing business in the European telematics market to scope out partnerships and share ideas
  • Full event summary report sent to you post-conference that will detail all the key trends, discussions and analysis of the live audience polls conducted on the day – so even if you miss a session whilst busy networking you can still capture the important information

 

Methodology

Substantial primary and secondary research has been carried out by the authors in the process of compiling this report. The analysis of these studies forms the backbone of the presented findings. Primary research comprised detailed semi-structured interviews with more than twenty senior subject matter experts from the automotive industry, along with a detailed online survey conducted by Telematics Update in April 2014 involving 352 respondents. The industry experts who were interviewed represented a wide cross section of automotive OEMs, suppliers, research organizations and technology firms.

The online survey was designed to gather quantitative data and provide insight on topics important to the design and development of future automotive HMI solutions from a wider selection of industry practitioners. It was completed by 352 people working from the fields of Management / Strategy, Business development, Hardware development, Software / App development, User interface / User experience design, User interface testing and evaluation / Human factors, Market research and Consultant / Analyst

Project definition

Telematics Update engaged in extensive consultation with the automotive industry and the broader regulatory and academic community to define research gaps and provide the most up-to-date, informed analysis of industry trends and needs. All research was guided by the input of an advisory panel of industry consultants to ensure that the report focused on real-world industry needs and objectives. Where appropriate, insights gleaned from these interviews are supported by survey
data and publicly-available secondary research.

Figure 54: Breakdown of TU’s April 2014 survey by primary business of respondent

Figure 54: Breakdown of TU’s April 2014 survey by primary business of respondent

Note: Multiple answers allowed. Source: Telematics Update, April 2014

Report approach

Telematics Update realizes that the state of the industry is in considerable flux. Companies are putting forward new business models and new products all the time. At this point, it is impossible to say which of these approaches may prove most competitive. In fact, it is precisely this uncertainty about the relative advantages of alternative approaches that has led us to create this report. We have attempted to capture sentiment and consensus on issues; where considerable debate continues about optimal business strategies, forecasts and other issues, this report sets out competing points of view to allow readers to get a clear sense of possibilities.

Figure 55: Breakdown of TU’s April 2014 survey by job function of respondent

Figure 55: Breakdown of TU’s April 2014 survey by job function of respondent

Note: Percentages may not add up to 100% due to rounding
Source: Telematics Update, April 2014

Figure 56: Breakdown of TU’s April 2014 survey by main target market

Figure 54: Breakdown of TU’s April 2014 survey by primary business of respondent

Note: Multiple answers allowed. Source: Telematics Update, April 2014

Figure 57: Breakdown of TU’s April 2014 survey by geographic region

Figure 57: Breakdown of TU’s April 2014 survey by geographic region

Note: Multiple answers allowed. Source: Telematics Update, April 2014

 

Industry reviews:

The University of NottinghamIt is increasingly the case that the design of the human-machine interface (HMI) will dictate the success of new technology systems within the driving context. This report provides a comprehensive, interesting and informative analysis of the HMI design issues for contemporary and future vehicles. As such, it will be an important source of knowledge for OEMs, first-tier suppliers and research organizations.

Gary Burnett, associate professor in human factors, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham

UIEvolutionThis report provides a comprehensive analysis of HMI, in-vehicle infotainment and driver distraction. The in-depth research compiled by these industry experts sheds insight into the current and future trends of this rapidly evolving industry.

Chris Ruff, president and CEO, UIEvolution

QNXA well-written report that delivers on the difficult task of pulling together a coherent story on the current trends and research related to driver distraction and automotive HMI design. Even automotive HMI experts will get some useful nuggets from this thought-provoking report.

Scott Pennock, senior standards manager, QNX

MTSI have participated in the creation and review of numerous industry reports and find Telematics Update unique in content and process. By reading this report, you can obtain important insights from industry thought leaders who have a global perspective. You can not only understand the industry dynamics, that is be ‘updated on trends and technology’, but can look behind the data to see where the industry is going and how to focus your efforts.

Dave McNamara, president, MTS

For sales enquires please contact Simi Ramabhadran on +44 (0) 207 422 4338 or sramabhadran@fc-bi.com

Thanks,

Ruthana

 

Ruthana Foulkes
Ruthana Foulkes
Head of Research
Telematics Update

+ 44 (0) 207 375 7151 / 1 800 814 3459 ext. 7151
rfoulkes@telematicsupdate.com
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